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What is Covid-19

How it Affects Health


Contributed by Rohan Bir Singh, MD. Credit: NCBI Bookshelf

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Respiratory transmission is the primary route for SARS-CoV-2 that get into alveoli in the lungs from the nose, throat, and even eyes. The spike glycoproteins (S proteins) covering the virion bind to the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and enter target cells via endosome or membrane fusion and release RNA in the cytoplasm. RNA uses host cells’ ribosome to replicate and assemble tons of virus and release them into the alveoli where virus stimulate consequent immune response.1

Credit: Avesta Rastan


  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with soap or an alcohol-based hand rub/sanitizer. Do not touch your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hand(s).2,3
  • Avoid going to crowded places, and maintain at least 1 meter (3 feet) social distance between yourself and others.2,3
  • Make sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene. This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately and wash your hands.2,3
  • Properly wear medical-grade (surgical) mask when you have respiratory symptoms, visit crowded places, and go to hospitals.3
  • Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities.2,3

Image credit: Zukunftssicherer

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Reference :

  1. L. Alanagreh, F. Alzoughool, M. Atoum. The Human Coronavirus Disease COVID-19: Its Origin, Characteristics, and Insights into Potential Drugs and Its Mechanisms. Pathogens. 2020, 9(5), 331
  2. World Health Organization. Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses
  3. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. Guidelines for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

What is Covid-19

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